This study argues that domestication is a long and varied process with at least seven separate phases. Each taming transformed ancient human ancestors and the social relationships between the biological sexes. Each stage built upon the prior one, and earlier forms made later subjugations possible.
(i) First, long before the Paleolithic or Stone Age began, female primates domesticated primate males and subdued male violence. Notably, this first taming, of human-like males by females, lasted throughout the Stone Age and rise of modern humans. Gynocentric practices endures into the present-day, but it started to be dismantled at the dawn of the sixth domestication, roughly 10,000 BP.
(ii) The second containment happened over a million years ago in the early Stone Age. This momentous innovation was the female taming of fire. The first phase of subjugation was critical to this second stage since it required a cooperative community to capture, maintain, and transport fire over vast distances, not roving gangs of competing hunters.
This second adaption led to remarkable improvements in female arts like cooking, building hearth-fires, and constructing home-bases. The use of fire technology was facilitated by cooperative gynocentric groups which laid the foundation for a sharing, gifting economy that lasted throughout the Stone Age.
(iii) The third domestication was earth-shattering. This practice began over 100,000 years ago, when females started using fire as part of proto-agriculture and long-term, gynecological, land management. Ancient female humans used fire to subdue the land and make it more productive for plant-foods. Female agricultural practices like fire-foraging and fire-farming makes it possible for larger human populations to survive and thrive.
(iv) The fourth taming came about before 30,000 BP, when female humans tamed wolves and trained them to serve as guards. Notably, pet animals were not used for food, and were often buried like other members of the family. Females needed dogs for security and protection of home-bases, and while they were out foraging. Female dogs served as honored guardians of the Goddess and her sacred spaces.
(v) The fifth subjugation is commonly referred to as the first domestication, the so-called agrarian revolution. Once again, females were instrumental in this taming, and they used existing knowledge of proto-agriculture to intensify crop cultivation by roughly 15,000 BP. This new plant-food technology was quickly learned by men and used to their advantage in combination with the next form of subjugation.
The (vi) sixth domestication was antithetical to the previous tamings and it represented an emphatic transformation in human-animal relations. It started about 10,000 BP and was made possible by a progression of female technology, and surplus generated by female-centered agriculture.
Women's innovations of fire, taming wolves, and intensive farming provided the knowledge and resources necessary for men to experiment with capturing and enslaving of food animals. Females tamed wolves tens of thousands of years earlier for protection, but they did not proceed to further domesticate other animals for food. With adequate plant-based protein, women had no need for enslaving ruminants.
The (vii) seventh domestication was men's catastrophic transformation of human social relations and subjugation of human females. By 8,000 BP, a drastic reduction in the status of females was accomplished by men across large parts of Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.
The dawning of the cyborgs give rise to the first cities, and so-called “civilization.” But it has rapidly led to the destruction of countless female-centered communities, and all forms of gynecological thinking, across the Earth. In 8,000 years, patriarchal civilization has engrossed the Planet in its 6th mass extinction, and threatens human survival itself.